Hormones and Emotions, How Are They Connected?
Estradiol and Serotonin
- E2 increases tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate-limiting step in serotonin synthesis
- E2 receptor (E2β) simulation upregulates the expression of serotonin receptors (5-HT2A)
- E2 acts as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor
- E2 inhibits monoamine oxidase activity, thus preventing the breakdown of serotonin
Progesterone and GABA
Progesterone’s metabolite allopregnanolone acts at the GABA receptor to increase GABA activity, thus promoting calming effects. Low progesterone levels may result in symptoms associated with low GABA, e.g. anxiousness and sleep difficulties. Supporting GABA may counter the effects of decreased progesterone
Cortisol and the Monoamines
Cortisol can stimulate monoamine oxidase (MAO) to dampen the production of various neurotransmitters, including serotonin, epinephrine, norepinepherine, and dopamine. In addition, MAO can enhance tyrosine hydroxylase to cause an increase the same neurotransmitters, including GABA, if needed. Furthermore, an upregulated immune system can be dampened by increased cortisol as necessary.
Non-Hormonal Approaches to ``Endocrine`` Symptoms
Due to the interactions between each system included in the NEI (Neuro-Endo-Immune) supersystem, symptoms can sometimes appear as a hormone issue when in actuality, they can be attributed to a neurotransmitter imbalance. Common symptoms include mood changes, focus issues, insomnia, fatigue, or anxiety. Addressing NEI Supersystem disturbances often results in patient symptom resolution without the need for hormone replacement therapy.
Reducing HRT Levels
For those patients that do indeed require HRT, addressing nervous and immune system disturbances concomitantly often results in a lower HRT dose and therefore reduces HRT side-effects.
Addressing Root Causes
Identifying and treating the root cause of a patient’s symptoms is the only way to achieve complete symptom resolution and long-term optimal health. Evaluations of the NEI Supersystem on a regular basis assist healthcare practitioners in proper diagnosis, effective management, and allows for more dynamic approaches to patient complaints.
Please discuss your symptoms with your physician and ask to have a detailed hormonal panel in addition to a “neuroscience” panel done www.neurorelief.com . This will allow your physician to better understand the underlying source of your symptoms.